Securing a safe water supply is important to every entity in the world. With changing weather patterns bringing droughts to regions normally the best farmlands, it is getting more frustrating for cities and states as they try to find water sources and negotiate prices and methods to transport water.
Coastal states have the ability to build desalinization plants, but landlocked states must rely on rivers, lakes and aquifers. To this end there have been many man-made lakes and rivers dammed up for both water and electricity.
Even after some rains, aquifers remain at levels below 50% or less in some areas of the United States, and around the world. It takes many days of rain to replenish the water supply both above and below ground.
Because of this, it is important to know where water can be accessed and to keep up with the status of those locations on a weekly basis. Aquifers serve not just one well but instead wells for entire cities, your wells may have water this week, but not have water next week under severe drought conditions.
One thing you can do is pay attention to EPA, state, and local water authority reports which list where contaminated ground water is already found. Knowing water is already contaminated and what the contaminants are is a step in the right direction when choosing which places to eliminate as possible sources of fresh water in the future.
Mapping safe and unsafe water is an important part of being prepared. Keep your map up to date since water wells that are clean today may be contaminated next week; and contaminated wells today may be safe next year. Similarly, it is important to realize that if your well is contaminated, it is possible that those adjacent to yours is contaminated too. Generally, water wells within cities are likely contaminated with any number of lawn and garden, industrial or other chemicals and not fit for human or animal consumption.
Another thing important is to recognize what a water well looks like. They are not all like the picturesque open top well, nor are they marked with rustic hand-pump wells. Some have signs on them that read “city of $%^ pumping station” or “city of $%^ well”. Some wells, particularly those in colder regions use submersible pumps and therefore may not have a cap visible from a distance. Instead they are capped with a slab of concrete or some other structure to keep people from falling inside. In warmer climates, often there is a tank visible next to the well. Many people decorate these with cute fake wells. Taking note of where these wells are could be important.
One easy way to keep your map up to date is to laminate a map and use dry erase markers to make notations and changes. Label the wells with the notations about the type of of contamination and what is required to make the water potable. When the time comes that you need to take your water map with you, simply snap a picture of it with your tablet or cell phone, then when time permits, can use your photo to transfer it to a permanent map.
Here are two links to get you started: